What many consider the first real Dutch settlement in the land that was to become Brooklyn was at Gowanus.
Gowanus Bay and its tidal inlet of small creeks in the original saltwater marshland of South Brooklyn had been navigated by both Giovanni da Verrazzano, who explored New York Harbor in 1524, and Henry Hudson, who sailed up what is now the Hudson River in 1609. Early settlers called the area “Gowanes Creek,” after Gowane (or Gouwane), the Canarsie Indian sachem (chief) who farmed there.
His land, 930 acres at the head of Gowanus Bay, was bought in 1636 by William Bennett and Jacques Bentyn for construction of a tobacco plantation. It was one of the earliest recorded real estate deals in New York City history.
Bennett became the sole owner of the property and built on it the first house in the place to become known as Brooklyn. The house burned down and was rebuilt on the same site in 1690 and later bought by the Schermerhorn family.
During the Revolutionary War, Gowanus became a major battle site. The invading British marched up the Gowanus Road, one of the main passes through Brooklyn, to the Old Stone House, where more than 250 American soldiers were killed and more than 100 others wounded or taken prisoner.
As Brooklyn grew, the New York State Legislature, in 1849, authorized the construction of a two-mile-long Gowanus Canal for navigational and docking facilities in the port of New York City. It was completed in the late 1860s and became a hub of commercial activity and heavy industry. But, by the turn of the century, the combination of industrial pollutants and runoff from the storm water and the sewage system had rendered the waterway a repository of rank odors.
That, and the construction of the Gowanus/Brooklyn-Queens Expressway led to the eventual decline of the Gowanus Canal.
Recent years have seen helpful improvements and momentum for its redevelopment.
Brooklyn-born Norm Goldstein is retired, after working 44 years for the Associated Press, the global news agency, where he served as a reporter, feature writer, editor, author and administrator. He also worked for AP as director of Educational Services and editor of the AP Stylebook. He graduated from Brooklyn College and the Penn State Graduate School of Journalism. He currently lives in Brooklyn Heights.